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Complex Object
Understanding knowledge representation Understanding knowledge representation... - Complex Object ()
Understanding knowledge representation developing strategies and tactics in high performance junior and senior tennis / by Hazuan Mohd Hizan
[Truncated abstract] This research examined the serve and serve-return behaviours of professional and high performance level age group tennis players. Five studies were undertaken and these are an examination of the reliability and validity of an alternative tennis coding system; an examination of gender and age-group differences in serve and serve-return performance; gender associations and within gender age-group associations with serve location; gender associations and within gender age-group associations with serve-return location; and recall of serve and serve-return performance of elite age-group tennis players. In Study 1, a notational analysis of men's and women's singles matches at the 2008 Australian Open was made. The results revealed that the inter-rater reports were highly similar on first or second serve (r = .972), serve landing location (r = .999), returner's impact location (r = .990) and return of serve landing location (r = .995). Hawk-Eye data validated the coding measurement for ball landing location. The coded ball location data of coaches and those of Hawk-Eye were highly correlated for landing of serve location (r = .998), returner's impact location (r = .993) and return of serve landing location (r = .997). Thus, the match notation system used in this study is reliable and valid and, therefore, could be presented as an effective method of studying strategies and tactics involved in game play. This system also provides a template for other researches and coaches to help them understand game tactics in tennis. In Study 2, the serve and the serve-return performances of professional, high performance Under-16 and high performance Under-12 male and female players were examined. Collectively, the players hit approximately 60% of their first serves in. A significant interaction between gender and player group was found for serving aces.
Male professionals served significantly more aces than Under-16 and Under-12 male players (ps < .001) and female professional players (p < .004). Similarly, female professional players served more aces than Under-12 female players (p < .003). Regardless of gender, professionals served significantly fewer double faults, won significantly greater percentage of points on first serves, and won significantly more points on second-serve returns than the Under-16 and Under-12 groups (ps < .001). The professionals also won a significantly higher percentage of points from second-serve returns than from first serve-returns (p < .004). Interestingly, the male professionals won significantly fewer points from first serve-returns than all the other groups (ps < .001). These findings are discussed in relation to past research on serve and serve-return, and the implications on youth coaching are highlighted. Study 3 examined the serve location patterns of male and female tennis players competing at the professional level and that of high performance Under-16 and Under-12 players. Several findings of practical relevance were revealed. Firstly, as players became more experienced or older, they served more often to the corners of the service box and less to their opponents bodies (ps < .001). The professional players also tended to treat first and second serves as opportunities to attack, serving mostly to the corners of the service box on both sides of the court (p < .001)...
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Western Australia, 2011
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