[Truncated abstract] Standard AOAC methods of chemical analysis have been used to characterize and evaluate the industrial byproducts; partly burnt chicken litter ash (CLA), totally burnt chicken litter ash (CLAT), wood ash (WA) and iron smelting slag for use as a combined liming agent and phosphate fertilizer. Rock phosphate has this function and was included for comparison purposes. All the byproducts had pH values above 9 and a liming capacity above 90% of pure lime, as a result, these materials will be effective as liming agents. Total P concentrations for CLA, CLAT, slag, and WA were 3.6%, 4.75%, 0.26%, and 0.44% respectively indicating that they could be used as P fertilizers when applied at the high rates required for liming soils. ... The RE values for all the materials relative to monocalcium phosphate (100%) for the first harvest are as follows, 50% for dicalcium phosphate, 31% for rock phosphate, 7% for partly burnt chicken litter ash, 7% for totally burnt chicken litter ash and 1% for wood ash and slag. The RE values for the second harvest were 100% for monocalcium phosphate, 80% for dicalcium phosphate, 40% for rock phosphate, 10% for partly burnt chicken litter ash, 8% for totally burnt chicken litter ash and 2% for wood ash and slag. Data for subsequent harvests are not reported due to the death of many plants. Clearly chicken litter ash has appreciable value as a phosphate fertilizer whereas wood ash and slag are ineffective. Explanations for these differences in effectiveness are discussed in the text. An evaluation of the liming effect of the byproducts indicates that they may be used as a soil amendment on acid soils and are nearly as effective as standard lime (CaCO3). Byproducts are also sources of other plant nutrients so they may be regarded as a form of compound fertilizer and liming agent.